An obese woman aged 70 years with a history of chronic persistent asthma and diabetes mellitus pre-sented with acute exacerbation and respiratory failure. A chest X-ray and CT scan revealed patchy in filtrates on the right lung along with right hilar and upper lobe masses suggestive of malignancy(figure 1). Bronchoscopy was performed 7 days later after control of her symptoms with nebulised bronchodilators, intravenous corticosteroids and non-invasive ventilatory support. Bronchoscopy revealed signi ficant bronchomalacia (>50% collap-
sibility), and masses in the right main stem and right upper lobe bronchi (figure 2 and see online supplementary figure S1). Biopsies revealed fila-mentous structures with the morphology of Mucor spp. invading the bronchial mucosa with no evi-dence of a malignancy
(figure 3 and see online supplementary figure S2).