Smoking and its impact

  • Dec 21, 2016
  • Nayati_main
Tobacco smoke is enormously harmful to health. There’s no safe way to smoke. Replacing your cigarette with a cigar, pipe, or hookah won’t help you avoid the health risks associated with tobacco products. Cigarettes contain about 600 ingredients. When they burn, they generate more than 7,000 chemicals. Many of those chemicals are poisonous and at least 69 of them can cause cancer. Many of the same ingredients are found in cigars and in tobacco used in pipes and hookahs. Lung cancer is one of the commonest malignant neoplasms all over the world. It accounts for more cancer deaths than any other cancer. It is increasingly being recognized in India. In addition to smoking, occupational exposure to carcinogens, indoor air pollution has been implicated in the causation of lung cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma is still the commonest histological type in India in contrast to the Western countries, although adenocarcinoma is becoming more common. Presentation-
  1. Coughing, especially if it persists or becomes problemetic.
  2. Pain in the chest, shoulder, or back, unrelated to pain from coughing.
  3. A change in color or volume of sputum.
  4. Shortness of breath.
  5. Recurrent lung problems, such as bronchitis or pneumonia.
  6. Changes in the voice or being hoarse.
  7. Harsh sounds with each breath (stridor).
  8. Coughing up blood in sputum.
  1. Imaging tests.An X-ray image of lungs may reveal an abnormal mass     or nodule. A CT scan can reveal small lesions in your lungs that might not be detected on an X-ray.
  2. Sputum cytology. Looking at the sputum under the microscope can sometimes reveal the presence of lung cancer cells.
  3. Tissue sample (biopsy).A sample of abnormal cells may be removed in a procedure called a biopsy.
  4. CECT Thorax and upper abdomen
  • Stage I.Cancer is limited to the lung and hasn't spread to the lymph nodes. The tumor is generally smaller than 2 inches (5 centimeters) across are basically treated by surgery.
  • Stage II.The tumor at this stage may have grown larger than 2 inches, or it may be a smaller tumor that involves nearby structures, such as the chest wall, the diaphragm or the lining around the lungs (pleura). Cancer may also have spread to the nearby lymph nodes needs surgery.
  • Stage III.The tumor at this stage may have grown very large and invaded other organs near the lungs treated by chemotherapy and Radiotherapy.
  • Stage IV.Cancer has spread beyond the affected lung to the other lung or to distant areas of the body treated by chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  Impacts of Smoking on Body

Central Nervous System

One of the ingredients in tobacco is a mood-altering drug called nicotine which reaches brain in mere seconds, it is a central nervous system stimulant, so it makes you feel more energized for a little while. As that effect subsides, you feel tired and crave more. Nicotine is habit forming. Smoking increases risk of macular degeneration, cataracts, and poor eyesight. It can also weaken your sense of taste and sense of smell, so food may become less enjoyable. Your body has a stress hormone called corticosterone, which lowers the effects of nicotine. If you’re under a lot of stress, you’ll need more nicotine to get the same effect. Physical withdrawal from smoking can impair your cognitive functioning and make you feel anxious, irritated, and depressed. Withdrawal can also cause headaches and sleep problems.

Respiratory System

When you inhale smoke, you’re taking in substances that can damage your lungs. Over time, your lungs lose their ability to filter harmful chemicals. Coughing can’t clear out the toxins sufficiently, so these toxins get trapped in the lungs. Smokers have a higher risk of respiratory infections, colds, and flu. In a condition called emphysema, the air sacs in your lungs are destroyed. In chronic bronchitis, the lining of the tubes of the lungs becomes inflamed. Over time, smokers are at increased risk of developing these forms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Long-term smokers are also at increased risk of lung cancer. Withdrawal from tobacco products can cause temporary congestion and respiratory pain as your lungs begin to clear out. Children whose parents smoke are more prone to coughing, wheezing, and asthma attacks than children whose parents don’t. They also tend to have more ear infections. Children of smokers have higher rates of pneumonia and bronchitis.

Cardiovascular System

Smoking damages entire cardiovascular system. When nicotine hits your body, it gives your blood sugar a boost. After a short time, you’re left feeling tired and craving more. Nicotine causes blood vessels to tighten, which restricts the flow of blood (peripheral artery disease). Smoking lowers good cholesterol levels and raises blood pressure, which can result in stretching of the arteries and a buildup of bad cholesterol (atherosclerosis). Smoking raises the risk of forming blood clots. Blood clots and weakened blood vessels in the brain increase a smoker’s risk of stroke. Smokers who have heart bypass surgery are at increased risk of recurrent coronary heart disease. In the long term, smokers are at greater risk of blood cancer (leukemia). There’s a risk to nonsmokers too, breathing second hand smoke has an immediate effect on the cardiovascular system and increases your risk of stroke, heart attack, and coronary heart disease.

Skin, Hair, and Nails (Integumentary System)

Some of the more obvious signs of smoking involve the skin. The substances in tobacco smoke actually change the structure of skin. Smoking causes skin discoloration, wrinkles, and premature aging. Your fingernails and the skin on your fingers may have yellow staining from holding cigarettes. Smokers usually develop yellow or brown stains on their teeth. Hair holds on to the smell of tobacco long after you put your cigarette out.

Digestive System

Smokers are at great risk of developing oral problems. Tobacco use can cause gum inflammation (gingivitis) or infection (periodontitis). These problems can lead to tooth decay, tooth loss, and bad breath. Smoking also increases risk of cancer of the mouth, throat, larynx, and esophagus. Smokers have higher rates of kidney cancer and pancreatic cancer. Even cigar smokers who don’t inhale are at increased risk of mouth cancer. Smoking also has an effect on insulin, making it more likely that you’ll develop insulin resistance. That puts you at increased risk of type 2 diabetes. When it comes to diabetes, smokers tend to develop complications at a faster rate than nonsmokers. Smoking also depresses appetite, so you may not be getting all the nutrients your body needs. Withdrawal from tobacco products can cause nausea.

Sexuality and Reproductive System

Restricted blood flow can affect a man’s ability to get an erection. Both men and women who smoke may have difficulty achieving orgasm and are at higher risk of infertility. Women who smoke may experience menopause at an earlier age than nonsmoking women. Smoking increases a woman’s risk of cervical cancer. Smokers experience more complications of pregnancy, including miscarriage, problems with the placenta, and premature delivery. Pregnant mothers who are exposed to second hand smoke are also more likely to have a baby with low birth weight. Babies born to mothers who smoke while pregnant are at greater risk of low birth weight, birth defects, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Newborns who breathe second hand smoke suffer more ear infections and asthma attacks.