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About Brain Tumor
Centre of Excellence for Neurosciences at Vimhans Nayati Super Speciality Hospital provides state-of-the-art facilities for the treatment for various types of Brain Tumors. Brain Tumor refers to the mass or lump that develops in the brain as a result of the uncontrollable multiplication of abnormal cells and tissues which get accumulated over time. With an incidence of 5 to 10 cases per 1,00,000 population in India, brain tumors affect both adults as well as children. Depending upon the nature of the cells i.e. whether they are cancerous or non-cancerous, brain tumors can be broadly classified into two categories – Benign Brain Tumors and Malignant Brain Tumors.
- Benign Brain Tumor – Being non-cancerous in nature these tend to stay at the site of origin and do not metastasize to other areas. If the tumor is very small, it does not pose any serious threat to the patient, however, larger tumors can compress brain tissue and lead to complications which can be easily avoided with the help of a surgery. Benign tumors are easily removable in the majority of cases and do not usually recur after removal
- Malignant brain tumors – Usually classed as grade 3 and grade 4 tumors, malignant brain tumors are quite aggressive in nature and progress very rapidly. These can either be primary or secondary. Primary brain tumors are the ones that originate in the brain itself whereas secondary brain tumors are those that have originated in some other organ of the body and spread to the brain metastatically.
Symptoms that might be an indication of brain tumor
Symptoms associated with brain tumor vary greatly depending upon various factors that include the type of tumor, its size, location and progress rate. Some of the general symptoms associated with brain tumors include:
- Frequent onsets of headache
- Changing pattern of headaches or headaches that become adverse over time
- Feeling nauseated without any reason
- Evident problems with vision like blurring or partial loss of vision
- Gradual loss of sensation and movement in the limbs
- Problems with balance
- Hearing defects and speech difficulty
- Confusion and chaos
- Behavioral changes
- Frequent or persistent seizures
What causes brain tumors?
The exact cause of brain tumors is not known but it is believed that these are a result of abnormal mutations in the DNA of the brain cells that compel them to grow and multiply rapidly in an uncontrolled manner. The unhealthy cells continue to live even as the healthy cells die and start replacing them.
Factors that increase the risks of brain tumor
Various factors that can elevate the risks of developing brain tumor include:
- Exposure to high-intensity ionizing radiations
- Family history of brain tumor
- Advanced age
- Excessive smoking
- Exposure to toxic chemicals and carcinogens
- History of Epstein-Barr virus infection, or mononucleosis
State of the art diagnostic procedures offered at Vimhans Nayati Super Speciality Hospital
Some of the cutting-edge procedure offered at Vimhans Nayati for the diagnosis, evaluation and assessment of brain tumors include:
- Neurological exam to assess the patient’s vision, coordination, strength, balance etc and how these have been affected.
- Imaging tests like Magnetic Resonance Imaging or MRI scan to detect any abnormality or lump as well as to evaluate the tumor for determining a proper treatment plan.
- CT (Computerised Tomography) scan and PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scan for determining the primary site of origin of secondary tumors that have spread to the brain.
- Biopsy that involves the collection of tissue samples to be tested and assessed for the signs of any malignancy.
Treatments offered by Vimhans expertise for the management of brain tumors
Various treatment options offered by our specialists at Vimhans Nayati include:
- Surgical treatments – The surgical removal of the tumor largely depends upon its accessibility. If the tumor is located in a place that can be easily accessed by the surgeons, surgery is preferred. The aim of the surgery is to remove as much tumor and unhealthy cells as possible. In some cases, the tumor is small and can be easily separated from the surrounding tissues, while in others, only a portion of it may be removed. Surgical removal of the tumor proves to be quite effective in relieving the symptoms
- Radiation therapy – High-intensity radiations are used to target and kill unhealthy cells as well as to reduce the size of the tumor. The therapy can be given externally using special machines to target the beams of radiation over the affected area or internally by placing certain radioactive material inside your body. The radiations so generated not only kill the existing unhealthy cells but also prevent the growth of new ones.
- Radiosurgery – It is an advanced technique that uses multiple radiation beams to destroy the tumor cells in very small areas which are not usually easily accessible. Radiosurgery targets only the tumor, excluding nearby healthy tissue, while in case of radiation therapy the surrounding healthy tissue may also be damaged.The treatment is usually referred to patients whose tumor cannot be removed via the conventional surgery.
- Chemotherapy – It involves the use of special drugs which can be given orally or intravenously to kill the tumor cells and curtail the growth and multiplication of new ones.
Head - Neurointervention & Principal Consultant Neurosurgery
Dr. Sumit Goyal
MBBS, DNB (NEUROSURGERY), FINR (FOUNDATION ROTHSCHILD PARIS, FRANCE)
He is an accomplished neurosurgeon, with over 15 years of hands-on experience in the field. He is one of the few neurosurgeons who is also trained in neurointervention.
- Senior Consultant, Department of Neurosurgery and Neuro-intervention at PSRI Hospital, New Delhi
- Associate Consultant, Department of Neurosurgery Sir Ganga Ram Hospital , New Delhi
- Assistant Professor at Ganga Ram Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research (GRIPMER)